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CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

Cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of stroke, and is caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain (ischemia).  The blood circulation is interrupted due to the obstruction of an artery, which is responsible for nourishing the brain tissue.  Cerebral ischemia is always a complex challenge for rehabilitation. Ischemic Stroke - Causes Embolism and Thrombosis are the causes of Cerebral Ischemia. An Embolism is a blood clot that circulates in the bloodstream and, based on its size, may or may not cause an obstruction of the blood vessel in which it is travelling, thus resulting in ischemia.  In fact, the arteries gradually become smaller as they approach the brain. Thromboses tend to form in blood vessels weakened by arteriosclerosis, through the accumulation of fat on the interior walls, thus decreasing the volume of circulation and resulting in ischemia. Most strokes (approximately 80-85% of cases) are the result of cerebral ischemia, while the remainder are attributable to cerebral haemorrhages. However, a haemorrhage can even occur following a cerebral ischemia due to secondary damage suffered by certain blood vessels. This is referred to as a haemorrhagic infarct. Cerebral Ischemia - Symptoms In order to save the patent's life and limit the potential for brain damage, it is essential to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of cerebral ischemia. In fact, whenever the symptoms of cerebral...

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HOW TO POSITION THE HEMIPLEGIC HAND DURING THE DAY

There are little things that can be done during the course of the day in order to render the post-stroke rehabilitation and recovery process more productive. In fact, particular attention should be paid to the management of the hand affected by hemiparesis. In many cases, the stroke patient is afflicted by hypertonicity or spasticity in the arm and hand, which tends to make them flex their elbow, wrist, and fingers, while at the same time closing their shoulder so that their arm adheres to their torso. For long periods of time during the course of the day, the hand in the previously described situation remains closed, resting on the inner thigh or supported in the lap by the other hand. We must understand that, in this situation, throughout the course of the day, the hand and brain are not subjected to any stimuli useful for recovering their functionalities, or rather gripping and handling activities. Furthermore, in this manner the hand is not kept under visual control, and even if the patient is not capable of moving it just now, it is a good idea for you to learn how to position it within the context of the actions that the patient performs during the course of the day.  The Neurocognitive Rehabilitation exercises for the recovery of the ability to grip objects help hemiplegic patients learn to control the movement of their hand...

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Perfetti Method

The Perfetti Method is a rehabilitative approach that was developed in the 1960s by Italian Professor Carlo Perfetti.  It is currently the best rehabilitative response to the effects of stroke, hemiplegia, and spasticity. The Perfetti Method is also known as Cognitive Therapeutic Exercise, and more recently as Neurocognitive Rehabilitation. Professor Perfetti's insights that gave rise to the Perfetti Method resulted in a significant breakthrough in the field of rehabilitation, above all with regard to post stroke rehabilitation.  Up until the development of the Perfetti Method, stroke and hemiplegia rehabilitation was limited to the strengthening of the muscle and the stimulation of the reflexes.  The Perfetti Method translates into rehabilitation and exercises, promotes development and progress in terms of medical-scientific knowledge, and finally also takes into account the cognitive processes for the recovery of movement. THE EVOLUTION OF REHABILITATIVE KNOWLEDGE Every rehabilitative methodology, technique, or method (including the Perfetti Method) arises from the scientific context in which it is inserted. In fact, muscle strengthening in the  field of stroke and hemiplegia recovery is the result of our knowledge and understanding of movement, whereby the muscle was identified as the only element responsible for generating the movement.  The idea that muscles are the fundamental elements for generating movement arose around the year 1700, together with the extraordinary studies conducted by Galvani and Duchenne on muscular contraction and electric current. After 100 years since 1800, our knowledge of movement took an enormous step forward. Thanks...

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Right Hemiplegia

To understand a little hemiplegia we must know that it is a paralysis of the half of the body, usually the compromised side is the opposite of the hemisphere that has been affected by the LCA, this happens because our pyramid route (our information highway) is decided, that is why hemispheric lesions occur on the contralateral side of the body, the exception would be cases where the cerebellum is damaged, where the condition is represented on the same side of the lesion, this happens because the cerebellum is below the decimation of the pyramidal route. What is the big difference between hemiplegia and hemiparesis?   When we talk about hemiparesis, we refer to a notable difficulty of movement, while hemiplegia is a greater degree of difficulty, greatly preventing hand and arm movements in addition to the lower limb, however, both terms are correct, they usually have a healthy side and an affected side, in the upper limb there is a characteristic flexor pattern of the hemispheric lesions, where the advanced or fallen shoulder is observed, the arm meets an elbow flexion, accompanied by pronation or a supination and finally the hand in most cases is closed, in the lower limb the pattern will be extension in the leg, with the hip that rises together with the pelvis, the knee will find it with a problem of flexion , where...

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